Heating details

How not to freeze!

These pages deal with Thermo Dynamics. Makes no difference if we are dealing with a human body or a bioreactor – it’s the same laws!

Thermodynamics is that part of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work. The behaviour of these universally valid quantities is governed by the four laws of thermodynamics. Irrespective of the composition or specific properties of the material or system in question.

  1. If two systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third, they are also in thermal equilibrium with each other.
  2. The internal energy of an isolated system is constant.
  3. Heat cannot spontaneously flow from a colder location to a hotter location.
  4. As a system approaches absolute zero, all processes cease and the entropy of the system approaches a minimum value.

Ideally the bioreactor produces the planned product best (titer) if the thermal gradients is zero. To obtain zero gradients is not easy. And far from just wrapping a heating blanket around the bioreactor!


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In order to accommodate the various heating requirements from the many different PCSs in the pharmaceutical industry we have designed and tested a range of products.